Saturday, June 30, 2012
Bakit ba ganon? Mahalaga mashado sa mga Pinoy ang image, na dapat isipin ng iba ay kaya nila ang buhay, ok lang sila hindi sila naghihirap, may kaya sila. Status symbol, importante sa Pinoy.
May nakausap nga ako, dati kong kaklase noong highschool. Sabi niya importante daw na ang kotse mo ay SUV, at may relo ka sa Pinas. Yung mamahaling wrist watch ha, hindi yung swatch lang. Kasi status symbol daw yan. Magiiba ang tingin sa iyo ng ibang tao. Sabi ko naman hindi naman practical siguro ang SRV unless may malaki kang pamilya at malaki ang sahod mo. At bakit ka pa mag rerelo, kung may celphone ka naman na may orasan din. Bakit ka pa mag susuot ng relo?
Isang araw pagbukas ko ng facebook nakita ko may bagong photo na napost yung kaibigan ko. Nagpost siya ng bagong picture. Gusto lang naman niyang ipakita yung bago niyang relo na TAG HEUER. At may caption pa na "watch this".
Hindi ba kayo nagtataka kung bakit fixated mashado ang mga unggoy Pinoy sa mga sikat na brands at designer labels? Pag hindi kilala yung brand na suot mo, kakantyawan ka na laos. Kaya bibili ka ngayon ng damit na may sumisigaw na Gucci sa harapan. Yung mga gago na may YS label na sinakop na yung buong damit, at maglalakad siya sa mall suot yung sumisigaw na YS tshirt niya na ang baduy naman at wala naman siyang pambili sa mamahaling mall na yan. Tapos kakain siya sa Jollibee, at sisigawan ang crew pag mashadong matagal yung inorder niyang burger yum, habang suot niya yung sumisigaw na YS na damit niya, na ang baduy-baduy at nakalimutan pa niya mag toothbrush mashadong maasim yung hininga nya.
|Sige dito kayo kumain kung talagang|
down to earth kayo.
Mayroon din mga firearms enthusiasts na nagpapamember sa shooting range or gun club na malapit sa kanila. Walang laman mga utak nito kung hindi mga baril. Mahilig sila sa baril at kating-kati sila. Dinadala nila ito kahit saan, kahit sa inuman kagaya ng kakilala kong tikalon na taga Bacolod. Imporante talaga na makita ng mga tao na may baril sila, dahil status symbol ito. Magkano baril? Mahal yan. Mas mahal ang registration at lisensya niyan na nirerenew kada-taon parang registration ng kotse. Mas mahal nga lang.
|Bakit ang hilig ng mga Pinoy sa mga baril?|
Meron akong kakilala na nakaharap ng gago noon, talagang hinamon niya. Hinarap niya talaga dahil naglabas na ng baril yung kainoman niya. "Sige putangina mo iputok mo na yang baril na yan, itutok mo dito sa ulo at pasabugin mo utak ko! Gusto ko na mamatay, wala akong paki sa buhay kong ito, itong buhay na walang kwenta dahil sa tindi ng pagmamalasakit ko sa bansa na nasasayang lang! Ayaw ko nang mabuhay dahil sa lakas ng aking desire na makita na umahon ang bansang ito, na aminin na natin wala na talagang pag asa, wala nang pag asa ang bansa na ito kaya sige na iputok mo na yang baril na yan tsutsupain ko pa yan na parang bakla na naghahari ngayon sa bulok na bansang Pilipinas! Bulok na bulok talaga ang Pilipinas kaya iputok mo na yan, putangina ka, kung hindi susuntukin ko talaga yang pagmumukha mo at wala kang magagawa dahil alam kong hanggang porma ka lang! Putok mo putangina ka! Putok mo!"
Hindi niya maiputok. Hanggang porma lang talaga. Kaya binuhat niya yung lamesita na pinaglalagyan ng mga nainom nilang tanduay at hinagis niya sa ulo niya, buti hindi natamaan dahil lasing na lasing na siya. At nagtatakbo na pauwi ng bahay niya yung mayabang na may baril, natakot sa kanya, binato niya ng mga bote at baso na napunta lang sa bakuran ng kapitbahay namin tinamaan yung nakaparang SUV niya. Nagalit siya lalo sa sarili niya kaya kinuha niya yung motor niya at balak sanang sagasaan niya habang tumatakas kaso dahil sa matinding kalasingan dumiretso siya doon sa may damuhan, lumusot sa mga talahib at tuloy-tuloy sa bangin.
|Bigatin ka pag meron ka nito sa Pinas.|
Nabwisit din ako isang araw post ng post sa facebook ang isang kakilala ko. Dami niyang pinopost na mga photos, mga kuha daw niya. Picture ng kanyang kotse, bahay, gamit sa bahay. Mga walang kwentang bagay. Baka gusto niya lang ipakita na may mga mamahaling gamit siya. Nabwisit ako nang makita ko na may picture siya ng camera. Nagcomment ako, "Tol, bakit naman pati camera kinunan mo ng litrato? Dapat yan ang ginagamit mo pang kuha ng litrato diba"? Gusto lang yata niya ipakita na may mamahaling camera siya. So yung mga gamit sa bahay na una niyang pinost, ay mga kuha gamit ang mamahaling camera. Eh walang nagcocomment kasi wala naman siyang mata sa camera. Ang bulok ng mga kuha niya. Ang dilim pa hindi mo matatawag na art. Hindi nga pasado yan sa Abante, kung mag apply siyang ng trabaho na camera man. At shempre para malaman ng tao kung anong camera ginamit niya, na may bago siyang bili na camera na mamahalin talaga, at para mag improve ang kanyang status symbol, kailangan kunan din niya ng photo yung camera.
At yung mga bwisit na mga holiday photos ha sino ba nabubwisit na rin sa mga friends ninyo na mahilig mag share ng mga walang kwentang picture nila? Ano paki alam ko kung nagpunta ka sa Hong Kong burat na tao ka? Binayaran mo na ba yung utang mo sa tindahan sa kanto? Saan mo nakuha yung pera pang holiday diyan? Inutang mo na naman sa credit card mo? Puki ng inang Pinoy ka!
In the wake of the recent fatwa by Saudi Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah ordering the destruction of all Christian churches on the Arabian Peninsula, an expat watchdog group warned non-Muslim Filipino migrant workers that they must avoid violating the religious restrictions while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In plain language, that means they cannot perform Christian worship services, even in a private home (which counts as a “house church”).
Employers in the Gulf States are infamous for harsh and sometimes fraudulent treatment of poor migrant workers, whether Muslim or not. Migrant workers must ask themselves: Are Saudi wages worth bowing the neck to spiritual as well as material enslavement?
Christians who intend to go to the KSA should be aware that they may face martyrdom if they continue practicing their faith, especially if they follow the Great Commission by mentioning it to anybody. Those who can’t accept that possibility, or whose faith is not strong enough to withstand that test, would be better off staying home.
gulfnews.com has the story:
By Gilbert P. Felongco, Correspondent
Manila: A migrant watchgroup urged Filipinos in Saudi Arabia to be more cautious in expressing their faith after the country’s most influential Islamic scholar issued a fatwa against religious structures in the Arab Peninsula.
In a statement, John Leonard Monterona, Migrante-Middle East regional coordinator, said it is understandable why a religious leader of a kingdom hosting a large population of migrant workers would issue such a restriction on the exercise of religion other than Islam.
He said that Saudi Arabia is not just any other country hosting a large Muslim population but is considered as the centre of the Islamic faith.
“Saudi Arabia is an Islamic state. It is where the two Holy Mosques are located,” Monterona said, referring to the Masjid Al Haram in Makkah and the Masjid Al Nabawi.
He urged fellow non-Muslim Filipino workers and the Filipino community in Saudi Arabia to exert extra caution and avoid violating the religious restrictions imposed by the host government to avoid being penalised.
“The fatwa should be viewed as a warning. The host government. and Saudi religious officials are well aware that there are religious activities being held discretely in homes and apartments by non-Muslims,” Monterona said.
He noted that last year there were a number of Filipino workers and other nationalities that were arrested by Saudi religious police in Riyadh for illegally conducting religious worship and activities.
“The Filipinos, along with their pastors, were eventually released on the condition that they will stop their regular religious worships and gatherings,” Monterona said.
Out of the 1.2 million Filipinos in Saudi Arabia, about 10 to 15 per cent are Muslim and about 5 per cent have converted to Islam, Monterona said.
Leaders of different Christian denominations–including the Russian Orthodox Church’s Archbishop Mark of Yegoryesk and the Roman Catholic archbishops of Austria and Germany–have criticised the fātwa issued by one Grand Mufti Shaikh Abdul Aziz Al Al Shaikh.
The Grand Mufti issued the fātwa after a top Kuwaiti official had sought his opinion regarding the construction of Christian worship centres or churches in Kuwait.
The fatwa declared that temples, chapels, and churches of Christian denominations in Kuwait and the entire Arab Peninsula must be banned and that existing Christian edifices should be destroyed.
Prior to this, there had been an appeal from some Roman Catholic Church leaders to give the religious minorities some freedom in exercising their faith as Muslims in other countries, including the Philippines, have been given.
The Philippines has a population of mostly Christians. The country, just like most of Southeast Asia, boasts tolerant policies when it comes to the exercise of religious freedom.
The government of the Philippines does, indeed, allow religious freedom. Not so the militant Muslims in the large southern island of Mindanao, who recently killed Pastor Mario Acidre for apostasy and for proselytizing Muslims.
Seems like the whole Media fiesta that is raging around the the Duterte’s of Davao City, specifically on-leave Mayor Sara’s fists and the Duterte father-and-son fingers is opening up old raw emotions about the subjugation of Mindanao to the 100-year-old elephant in the room — the legacy of colonial rule, Imperial Manila. Many Davao folk have now taken to responding to perceived incursions of Manila-based pundits (not to mention the investigation team sent by Malacanang to sort the sh*t out of Davao’s quaint feudal politics) into what they believe is “their business.”
“Mind your own business” apparently is the intelligent argument of choice of our Davao “brothers,” fellow Luzonians. Is that a fair call?
Maybe it does hold water. After all, Filipinos for so long have seen their 400-year subjugation to the colonial rule of Spain and then that of the United States over the first half of the 20th Century as shameful realities of their history. This shame manifests itself in rather flaccid efforts mounted by one Filipino politician or another over the last 60-odd years of “independence” to scrub off as many traces of this legacy as they could from the cultural character (perhaps with a river stone, as tradition dictates). It started with the summary re-writing of history declaring the 12th of June 1898 as the country’s day of “independence” and relegating the real one on the 4th of July 1946 to some sort of token recognition of some imagined “friendship” with the United States. And it all culminated with the kicking out of the Americans from their military bases in 1991…
Thanks to the 12 bozos who voted against US military bases in the Philippines in 1991 — Senate President Jovito Salonga, Sens. Wigberto Tanada, Teofisto Guingona, Rene Saguisag, Victor Ziga, Sotero Laurel, Ernesto Maceda, Agapito Aquino, Juan Ponce Enrile, Joseph Estrada, Orlando Mercado, and Aquilino Pimentel — Filipinos have, right in their faces today, a sad lesson twenty years in the making in what it is like to languish outside the American sphere of what is globally relevant.
Perhaps, today, the fact that the Philippines is still a nation that presumes to be composed of a northern island historically ruled by a bunch of quaint Ilocano- and Tagalog-speaking tribes and a southern island chain composed of largely Cebuano-speaking remnants of ancient sultanates, is a testament to the strength and endurance of the colonial legacy of European civilisation in the Far East.
Beyond the passive-aggressive approach Filipinos take to loudly assert their indigenous identity above the sheer weight of substance of European culture, not much more than a whimper comes out: laughable changes in the names of major roads, a curiosity of an initiative to change the country’s name to “Maharlika,” and, most misguided of all, imposing the northern imperial Tagalog dialect as de facto the “official” national language. This inability to get beyond a rather pathetic idea of what being “nationalistic” is all about begs a simple question:
Are we forcing the issue of a Philippine “national identity”?
One person who, along with Yours Truly, was cited by national treasure Manuel L Quezon III as delivering among the most “provocative” works over the last twenty years is David C. Martinez. Martinez has taken a scholarly approach to exploring the option of partitioning the Philippines into its natural constituent “nations”…
Poverty, inequality, and corruption plague the Philippines six decades after independence. Of the past five presidents, only one took office and left it without military intervention, and he was a general. In his controversial book, A Country of Our Own (2004), David Martinez describes the Philippines as a failed state. The country in his eyes comprises five regions (“nations”): Cordillera, Luzon, The Visayas, Mindanao, and Bangsamoro. He proposes holding legally binding referenda in each of these places to determine whether those who live there wish to remain inside the Philippines or form their own independent country. In a conversation moderated by Stanford’s Don Emmerson, Martinez and the Filipinist scholar Lela Noble will examine arguments and evidence relevant to a crucial question: Is the nation-state project still valid for the Philippines?
Today, in the aftermath of the Duterte imbroglio, it seems that the issue of how different Mindanao is from Luzon in both manner, style of thinking, and approach to governance has come to light. It is the elephant in the room we could no longer ignore. Perhaps it is time we face the real debate on how viable this notion known as “the Philippines” remains.
Election time is just around the corner in the Philippines again with various seats in Congress up for grabs. The stakes are high. Pressure amongst the handful of feudal clans who rule the land to keep the goods within the familyis mounting as the whelps of aging lords and ladies of various manors carved out of the former Spanish colony posture and grandstand for a slice of their daddies’ power pies.
One such whelp is Senator Aquilino “Koko” Pimentel The Third (why one would use the name “Aquilino” three times in the family is anyone’s guess). In a spectacular exhibition of brattiness we have come to be so familiar with among the sons-of-politicians that now gleefully run the country like they once drove their daddies’ cars and swiped their mommies’ Visa cards, Koko, I read, stomped out of his party, the “United Nationalist Alliance” (UNA) in what seems to have been a fit of rage over “the coalition’s decision to keep Juan Miguel Zubiri on its 2013 Senate slate”.
“Galing ako sa bahay ni Erap [I came from Erap's residence], and I said, ‘Sorry Ninong,’ and we talked a little. But the former president did not make any effort to stop me,” Pimentel told reporters on Thursday.
Pimentel said that he could not stomach running with Zubiri because the latter was allegedly the biggest beneficiary of the fraud perpetuated in the 2007 polls.
“Hindi ko talaga masikmura na tumakbo kasama ang kalaban ko. It is my personal decision,” he said.
Pimentel said he would run as an independent senatorial candidate under PDP-Laban.
O sige na anak, meme na meme na…
Former Senator Juan Miguel “Migz” Zubiri, if we recall voluntarily resignedhis position as Senator out of delicadeza (it seems) in mid-2011 after he was implicated in allegations of electoral fraud in the 2007 senatorial elections. Those allegations of cheating were, get this, initiated by losing candidate Koko Pimentel.
Pinoy nga naman talaga.
Even more bizarre (as the politics of feudal societies tend to be), Pimentel’s allegations were corroborated by suspended Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao governor Zaldy Ampatuan — the prime suspect in one of history’s worst orgy of civilian killings. Fifty seven people were massacred — allegedly under the instructions of Ampatuan — in 2009 (of which 32 were “media workers” as the Philippine Media seems to like to repeatedly point out ad nauseum).
Perhaps therein lies Koko’s pain. The bloodstained character of his cheating complaint notwithstanding, his triumphant taking of his Senate seat wasnapurnada; i.e., marred by the pogi (brownie) points Zubiri seems to have garnered after he was hailed as one of the extremely rare instances of a Filipino politician resigning out of a sense of honour.
Zubiri insists that he is not guilty of cheating and even said that he did not ask anyone any favors. He also insists that he is as much a victim of the so-called election syndicates:
Zubiri, however, said that he did not ask anyone for any favor regarding the elections. “Ang inyong lingkod ay lalabas ding biktima noong botohang naganap noong 2007 (I am also a victim of the 2007 elections),” he said.
Resigning from their posts is something that many public officials who were embroiled in controversies in other countries have been known to do. In Japan for example, they change Prime Ministers like they change shirts. If it’s dirty and needs washing, they need to go. A public official who is involved in an imbroglio or who does not deliver his duties must resign without even waiting for any calls for him to do so. He does this to save face and it is part of their culture. The people readily accept this practice as normal and will likely not raise an eyebrow over the next one.
* * *
The point I wanted to make, however, has really nothing to do with all that discussion around people and events. Those are discussions best left to small minds and the sons and daughters of aging oligarchs.
What I really wanted to highlight here is the complete absence of anything to do with what these parties, these candidates, and these legislative elections are really all about. The hard questions are, as always, glossed over in favour of the wrong arguments and the irrelevant views of the mal-educated and ill-bred: What national issues are at stake? What is the legislative agenda being evaluated (this, if we recall, being a Senate election)? Where are theplatforms of these candidates? Do these platforms even matter? Are these platforms used to keep track of the actual performance of a politician over the course of his term? And what’s up with these “political parties” and “coalitions”? What do they really mean? What principles do they stand for?
All I hear in the aftermath of the above questions is the sound of heads being scratched.
So yeah, you guessed it. The old familiar cry of Get Real Philippines! is back in the forefront of the cream of the elite Filipino minds who wield the only true and rare insight in the morass of online chatter that dominates this intellectually-bankrupt society.
If your politician does not have a platform and, if he does, does not make it the centrepiece of his campaign, then he or she is wasting your time.
Come on, let’s join us!
Claw your way out of the jolog pit and be counted as a true Get Realist and a true Filipino!
Be the voter the Republic of the Philippines truly deserves. Use your brain and think. If Filipinos want to be the proud people they insist they are, then this (and, for that matter, every election) is their chance to prove that they have earned that “pride” and that songs, dances, and adolescent dramas such as those exhibited by these children no longer matter.
Friday, June 29, 2012
A noted blog commentator once made an assertion that the Philippines will never be a great nation unless Filipinos learn to live by the principle of the “rule of law”. Indeed, some people even insist that none of the calls by certain sectors of Philippine society for a system change like a shift from a Presidential to a Parliamentary system or even constitutional amendments will work to uplift the status of the nation because most Filipinos simply cannot follow the “rule of law.”
It is quite certain that the success of any nation depends on the character of the head of state and the character of the people in general. A strong leader will put the interest of the nation first before anything else. A strong leader supported by strong institutions can work towards achieving social and economic stability for the people.
However, a weak leader in a country like the Philippines, which has weak institutions will tend to succumb to the world-renowned Filipino “padrino” system — a system that trumps any other system in place. Worse, such a leader will mask his weakness or understanding of the law by acting like he is above the law.
A weak leader, whether he is leading a country or a small community tends to let praises or expressions of adoration from the public get to his head. Because he is easily impressed by such accolades, he also tends to become arrogant and will see criticism of him as a mere non-constructive annoyance. Such a leader will not work towards unity and harmony in Philippine society. Unfortunately, weak systems tend to harbor weak leaders.
What is with Filipinos and following the rule of law?
There is very little evidence that Filipinos are capable of living by the “rule of law”. The society is quite extraordinary in the sense that simple rules and regulations whether on the road or in the work place are for the most part ignored. This is because each individual has this baseless sense of being more important than everybody else. It is why you see people cutting you off on highway lanes on the road or pushing their way in lines ahead of the rest in a queue. In other words, Filipinos in general tend to put their own interest first before other people.
As a blogger, I quite often come across commentators who cannot even follow simple commenting guidelines. There are some participants in the blogosphere who constantly violate the guidelines by consistently writing obscenities and foul language on forums just to give the impression that they are above the guidelines. The funny thing is, being moderated does not even stop them from misbehaving. They even cry foul for being moderated instead of conforming to the guidelines.
This brings us to another world-renowned Filipino mentality — the “victim” mentality. Filipinos are good at playing the “victim card” because they are very sensitive and emotional people. They play the victim card in front of the public to get as much attention as possible. Filipinos always try to get around following any rules and regulations or even simple guidelines by appealing to emotion.
Filipino victim mentality was quite evident in the case of a group of nurses in the US who reportedly filed a discrimination complaint when their employer called their attention for speaking too much in their native Tagalog at work. Victim mentality was also quite evident in the way the Philippine government tried to intervene and stop the execution of three drug mules that were sentenced to death in China for violating their anti-drug rule. Likewise, victim mentality is definitely evident in the way the incumbent President, Noynoy Aquino (PNoy) cries foul whenever he is criticized for decisions that were obviously not thought through very well.
It is quite interesting to note that some Filipinos would rather act like idiots than follow the rules. They always want to find an easy way out of a situation. They want to make uncomplicated things complicated. This brings us to another world-renowned Filipino trait: “lack of discipline.”
Filipinos in general are incapable of any form of discipline because they focus more on form rather than substance. In short, they want to stand out. They lack the discipline to engage in discussions in a civilized way and lack the discipline to not turn a public forum into a circus. This is why issues do not get resolved. This is a consistent observation — from every Senate inquiry being broadcast to the Filipino public down to the most benign discussions in the blogosphere, Filipinos love honking their horns.
Worse, Filipinos in general feel a strong sense of entitlement to relax or “chill-out” even when there is still so much to do to move the country forward. Instead of discussing solutions seriously and in detail during their spare time, Filipinos would rather spend it fooling around — never mind that societies from great nations like China, Japan and South Korea have historically shown that being more serious and devoting more of their time to solving problems yields better results in the long term.
From the top guys and gals sitting behind desks at the Presidential office down to the tricycle driver down the road, everyone just wants to have “fun” in the Philippines first before tackling the problems of the land in a more serious manner. You can be forgiven for thinking that one hit wonder Wang Chung probably wrote the song “Everybody have fun tonight” for Filipinos. It can absolutely boggle the mind to wonder why Filipinos cannot limit switching to party mode when they are at an actual party.
As discussed in my previous article, Filipinos are proud of being a happy-go-lucky society and make it a point to show the rest of the world that they are coping with smiling faces despite the dire circumstances they face. This mentality shows that Filipinos are satisfied with mediocrity and find striving for excellence too daunting. A few remaining Filipinos who want to engage in a more serious discussions are even labeled “kill-joy” or “librarians.” Aside from their penchant for bullying when others don’t engage in “pakikisama,” Filipinos indeed, have a tendency to discriminate against more sober ways of tackling solutions.
Unfortunately, a 90 year old study by psychologist Dr Leslie Martin and his colleagues in California suggested that “too much of a sense that everything will be fine can be dangerous because it can lead one to be careless about things that are important to long life.” Likewise, the study also showed that those who are always optimistic take more gambles with their health. They were more likely to drink, smoke and eat badly, which is a typical characteristic of a Filipino. While prudent and persistent individuals are more cautious with their health and overall wellbeing – characteristics that are less likely to be found in Filipinos.
Filipinos have so much to learn from the Japanese. Despite the devastation that the people of Japan experienced due to the magnitude 8.9 earthquake that hit country and the killer tsunami that followed immediately after, people around the world admired the stoicism and orderly reaction of the Japanese. People in most societies would have found themselves wailing in misery and chaos after such destruction.
Maia Szalavitz in an article she wrote for TIME magazine aptly described how it works for the Japanese – they follow the belief that “others are at least on par with the self, if not more important.” Here’s an excerpt:
“In restaurants, you never pour your own sake, you have to notice whose glass is empty and you serve them. It’s these little rituals [that have prepared them for this crisis] so that even if you have one bowl of rice, you share it with a stranger.
The wonderful thing about the Japanese is that they are presenting an example of the pro-social power of the group. The group as a whole is saying explicitly or implicitly, this is what we do: no looting, no horn honking even if you’re in a 12 mile traffic jam, no complaining. [CNN's] Anderson Cooper said he’d never seen such calm in the face of such adversity.”
Not that Filipinos need copy what the Japanese do to a tee, but the most interesting thing to note about societies like Japan is that nobody has the desire to grandstand. Individuals do not want to show that they are more important than everybody else. This is in stark contrast to people in societies like the Philippines where people in general want to be the “star.” And this is the reason why some Filipinos think that they are above the “law” or above even just simple “guidelines.”
Discipline should be inculcated at an early age. If people are not taught how to follow rules and regulations when they are still young, they will be shocked to realize once they enter the “adult” world that they will have a hard time coping with life if they keep deviating from the rules that put order in society. Which is what is happening to most Filipinos now.
Shield Who? From What Economic Fallout?
Who’s Gonna Earn What?
Should Filipino Taxpayers Enable/Subsidize Irresponsible Government Policies – At Home and Abroad?
Section 1. Prequalification Requirements. – Before a foreign retailer is allowed to engage in the retail trade business or invest in an existing retail store in the Philippines, it must possess all of the following qualifications:(a) A minimum of Two hundred million US dollars (US$200,000,000.00) net worth in its parent corporation for Categories B and C, and Fifty million US dollars (US$50,000,000.00) net worth in its parent corporation for Category D;